WELCOME TO THE SECOND ISSUE of Con.WEB, a monthly on-line magazine covering energy conservation, energy efficiency, demand-side management and renewables in the greater Pacific Northwest--and sometimes beyond. Con.WEB is the cyberspace successor to Energy NewsData's Conservation Monitor, a regional energy conservation newsletter published in print from 1991 through 1995.
In this issue, we review a couple of key policy debates, the demise of a once-promising conservation program and the emergence of another, and the first wholesale "green power" deal in the Northwest. There's more, too--just scroll down a little further.
We also invite you to check out our FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) section--which will be posted by February 29. We encourage readers to electronically share questions, comments and other thoughts related to Northwest energy conservation and renewables, as well as to Con.WEB.
Pacific Northwest Generating Cooperative touts its new energy efficiency program as customer-focused, market-based, flexible and just plain sensible for all involved.
Several public utilities contacted for a Northwest Conservation Act Coalition survey on future conservation spending have criticized the group's conclusion that few utilities are replacing lost Bonneville Power Administration conservation funds with money of their own. NCAC contacted 13 public utilities for the survey; nine had lost BPA conservation money, NCAC reported, and six of those failed to replace funding with money of their own.
"No publicly-owned utility in our survey had a conservation budget sufficient to fund the [Northwest Power Planning Council] Regional Plan targets in either 1994 or 1996," the study reads. "The notion that most publicly-owned utilities would rise to the challenge [of replacing Bonneville funding with local money] and fund to levels consistent with the Regional Plan targets is clearly untenable . . ." the survey concludes, and recommends Bonneville act immediately "to restore funding in an effective manner for proven conservation incentive programs."
Among the utilities NCAC surveyed, Cowlitz County PUD was classified by NCAC as one of the utilities that adopted flex funding, which stretches past Bonneville conservation allocations into future years. The survey stated such utilities "appear to be well on their way to very low levels of conservation funding, or even complete conservation shutdown, when the short flex period is over."
Cowlitz general manager Leon Smith said NCAC's conclusions are "grossly inaccurate" and "absolutely not true." He sent a letter to Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary (and others to whom NCAC sent the survey) that reads in part, "As for Cowlitz PUD, we do not plan a '. . . complete conservation shutdown'. . . and we made this point very clear to the representative who called . . . In general we found the 'survey' extremely biased and in Cowlitz' case, a gross misrepresentation of the facts."
The Pacific Northwest Generating Cooperative also criticized the survey, sending its objections to BPA administrator Randy Hardy. Although PNGC wasn't contacted for the survey, one of its members was. PNGC executive vice president Dave Piper criticized the NCAC survey for failing to mention the coop's new Energy Efficiency Program (see related story) and pointed out the program recommends "participating systems increase their budgets substantially . . ." Piper also criticized NCAC for using 1991 estimates of conservation acquisition targets and costs. ". . . companies responsible for serving customers in 1996 had better have a more accurate idea of what is cost effective," Piper wrote.
NCAC executive director Sara Patton isn't surprised by the strong responses the survey has elicited. And she defends the survey's recommendation that Bonneville restore conservation funding. "BPA wants everyone to think defunding conservation is inevitable, but no one has redrafted the Northwest Power Act yet," she said. "If there is conservation that's cost-effective, BPA has a statutory responsibility to make sure that's acquired."
BPA administrator Randy Hardy said BPA is committed to acquiring the cost-effective conservation goals of the region and is working with utilities and the Northwest Power Planning Council to achieve regional targets in a way that fits with the new utility environment. But returning to a centrally funded program, Hardy said, "is a non-starter in this environment."
Central funding was never a hit with Cowlitz's Smith, anyway. Cowlitz favors local control and local funding of conservation programs, Smith said, and was dissatisfied with the inequity of the Bonneville-run programs. "Bonneville collected way more money from Cowlitz than we've gotten back," he said. "We'll do conservation that's appropriate for Cowlitz PUD and that's cost-effective for Cowlitz PUD."
Patton said one reason NCAC did the study was to draw attention to the fact that "the initial ideas of how energy conservation was going to be delivered in this brave new world aren't happening. Having utilities do it on their own--it just isn't happening." Patton said it's an appropriate issue to consider as the Northwest begins its regional energy review.
Hardy seems to agree on that last point. The BPA administrator said he hopes the regional review will come up with a long-term solution to provide for "this public benefit."--Jude Noland
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"Conservation in a competitive world," a Jan. 26 meeting hosted by the Oregon Public Utility Commission, attracted a range of interest groups--from industry representatives to government staffers to citizen and customer groups--and generated lots of discussion on what role conservation should play in the impending competitive utility industry. But despite news reports to the contrary, no consensus was reached--other than on the need for another meeting.
"We've just kind of scratched the surface" and more dialogue is needed, according to Ken Canon, executive director of Industrial Customers of Northwest Utilities. "We definitely have more work to do."
But Isaac Regenstreif, public policy manager for PacifiCorp, which brought up the issue of conservation's future in a discussion paper released last spring, said participants seemed to have some common goals. One is a need for a new mechanism to deliver conservation. "[There's a] recognition that you can't load [conservation] costs into utility rates any more," Regenstreif said, and that conservation's value as a cost-effective resource has been diminished by the low cost of other forms of energy, such as natural gas.
Five alternative scenarios for delivering conservation in Oregon were discussed at the meeting. They include: continuing the current method of central delivery programs with incentive payments and funding them through a broad-based system benefits charge; several market transformation approaches that rely on various combinations of efficiency standards, energy codes, customer information and low- or no-interest loans; and instituting a system benefits charge in conjunction with retail wheeling.
The concept of a systems benefit charge to fund conservation generated the most discussion and raised the toughest questions, Regenstreif said. For example, how broad-based should such a charge be, and how would it be collected? Should the charge be established as a one-time transition fee that sets up a trust fund to finance future conservation expenditures, or as a longer-term system benefits charge levied at the distribution level as a mechanism to fund numerous measures? And what about natural gas--should a similar charge be levied on gas customers?
These issues will be taken up again at the group's next meeting on March 1. For a summary of the Jan. 26 meeting, e-mail Jim Litchfield at firstname.lastname@example.org.--Jude Noland
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Emerald PUD's landmark conservation "power plant" was christened three years ago amid great hopes for a long and successful existence. Now it appears the project will be successful, but not long-lived.
Bonneville Power Administration, which finances the CPP under a 1993 agreement with Emerald, plans to discontinue funding the project beyond the current fiscal year's allocation of $1.4 million. That would bring BPA's total CPP funding to $2.4 million--far short of the $17 million over 11 years originally envisioned to save 3.4 average megawatts in Emerald's predominantly rural service territory in Oregon's Willamette Valley.
"We're just not in an acquisition mode [for resources] anymore," explained Ray Classen of BPA's Southwest District office in Vancouver, WA.
BPA, buffeted by increasing competition in the wholesale power marketplace, now projects a resource surplus through the year 2000. The agency has already jettisoned several proposed supply-side resource acquisitions, most notably the 248-MW Tenaska project near Tacoma, and has stopped funding new centralized conservation programs in the region.
Although the Emerald CPP contract remains in effect and the project conceivably could be resurrected, Classen confirmed Bonneville expects to end its funding after the currently approved money is spent.
"The effect of Bonneville's action is to terminate their long-term commitment and they've given no indication that they intend to re-establish that," said Emerald PUD general manager Jeff Shields. He blasted Bonneville for "pulling the rug out from under us" just as the CPP was blossoming.
Emerald's CPP was heralded in 1993 as a potential model for BPA-funded conservation in rural areas (see Conservation Monitor, July/August 1993). Under the novel arrangement, Emerald pursues energy savings in its own fashion among residential, commercial and industrial customers. As an example, said Emerald's Alan Zelenka, the PUD has pushed weatherization for existing mobile homes--the housing stock for roughly 25 percent of Emerald residential customers.
BPA, meanwhile, purchases the conservation by paying principal and interest on tax-exempt bonds sold by the Oregon Department of Energy's Small Scale Energy Loan Program. Total bond funding so far is $2.4 million, according to ODOE's Dave Stevens.
To date, conservation through the CPP has come in at an average cost of 2.35 cents/kilowatt-hour (1990 dollars)--well below the target of 3 cents/KWh (also 1990 dollars). Bonneville's Classen acknowledged the CPP as cost-effective, but reiterated, "We're not looking for new resources."
Shields and Zelenka condemned Bonneville for withdrawing CPP support while continuing to buy more expensive power (about 3.5 cents/kilowatt-hour in fiscal year 1995) from the WNP-2 nuclear plant in south-central Washington. They believe those actions contradict public opinion in the region.
Despite the demise of the CPP, Emerald will continue energy-saving endeavors, mindful of a recent PUD customer survey in which 83 percent of respondents picked conservation as their top resource choice for the utility.
In mid-February, the Emerald PUD board of directors approved a $1.25 million annual budget for conservation over three years beginning in January 1997. Zelenka said 55 percent of the money will come from utility revenues, and the rest will be borrowed.
There will be three major changes from the CPP, Zelenka said. Emerald's cost-effectiveness target will be 2 cents/KWh (1995 dollars). Customer payments for efficiency improvements will be increased, from zero to 40 percent for residential and from 20 to 30 percent for commercial/industrial. And the PUD will offer a variety of enhancements, including programs for solar water-heaters, residential compact fluorescent lights, geothermal heat pumps and amorphous core transformers.
"It's certainly not the largest conservation program in the country, but given the nature of the industry and Emerald's competitive position in that, I think it's responsible," said Shields.--Mark Ohrenschall
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An Oregon cooperative utility is coloring itself a distinctive shade of green.
Salem Electric--seeking to promote renewables development in accordance with customer interest--plans to buy 7 average megawatts of wind-generated "green power" at a premium price from Bonneville Power Administration.
This would mark the first wholesale green power deal for BPA and the Northwest. It would also (in theory if not in actual electron flow) give Salem the distinction of being entirely reliant on renewable resources: the cooperative is a full-requirements customer of BPA, which derives 83 percent of its power from hydro; the green-power acquisition would equal 17 percent of Salem's total load.
Under the proposed agreement, Salem would buy the 7 aMW from Bonneville for five years at a price of 3.5 cents per kilowatt-hour. The price includes transmission, load-following, load-shaping, reserves and other services. Bonneville may provide the power from its share of the proposed 25-megawatt Columbia Wind Farm No. 1 in south-central Washington and/or the proposed 68.1-MW Foote Creek Rim wind-energy project in Wyoming, both of which are now under environmental review.
The proposed agreement, approved by the Salem board of directors Jan. 10, came nearly a year after BPA first began considering a special offer "to take advantage of the demonstrated demand at the retail level for an all-renewables kind of product," said Bonneville's George Darr. Selling green power also was seen as a way to help sustain Bonneville's participation in four renewables projects--the two wind farms and two proposed geothermal plants--in spite of the agency's budget cuts.
The terms--relatively short duration, no project ownership and billed only when the green power is delivered--are also intended to minimize utility risk, according to BPA account executive Paul O'Neal. "What we want to be able to do is demonstrate the viability of the product, get people involved in it, then work with these people during these next five years to basically craft a long-term arrangement [and] possibly add additional resources later on," he said.
For Salem, the green power arrangement reflects the cooperative's long-standing support of conservation and renewable resources. Last spring, according to engineering and operations manager Roger Kuhlman, a 20-customer focus group "was very favorable to becoming involved in renewables." A subsequent customer survey soliciting opinions on green power indicated about 80 of 100 respondents favored the idea and were willing to pay up to 4 percent more in rates for it.
In fact, though, Salem intends to go green without raising its rates. At the current BPA average priority-firm wholesale rate of 2.71 cents/KWh, Kuhlman explained, the green-power purchase would cost Salem an additional $500,000 annually. However, BPA's proposed reduction in its average PF rate to 2.49 cents/KWh would lower Salem's annual BPA bill by $900,000. The cooperative could then finance its green power and also earmark an additional $400,000 for conservation--both while keeping retail rates stable.
The Salem-BPA agreement has yet to be turned into a signed contract, but officials from both entities foresee no great difficulties. The purchase could officially start as soon as Oct. 1, depending on the availability of Bonneville's renewable resources.
In addition to Salem, several other BPA customer utilities have expressed interest in green power, according to Darr, although none have made commitments. "We have visions of this being an ongoing product," he said.--Mark Ohrenschall.
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An energy efficiency program touted as customer-focused, market-based, flexible and just plain sensible for all involved has been unveiled by Pacific Northwest Generating Cooperative.
PNGC's new Energy Efficiency Program allows participating member cooperatives to choose from among eight subprograms in the residential, commercial, industrial and irrigation sectors. The co-ops pay a monthly fee to PNGC and can use the subprograms (with numerous options) as they see fit, tailoring them to the needs of their own customers. Participating utilities also can employ centralized services, such as advertising/marketing, electronic information/communications and technical support.
Four Oregon cooperatives had signed up as of mid-February-- Blachly-Lane County Cooperative Electric Association, Consumers Power, Coos-Curry Electric Cooperative and Umatilla Electric Cooperative--and PNGC's Phill Sher expects more to join them. He also anticipates offering the program soon to non-PNGC members.
"Our interest is . . . not to do conservation needs for the power system, but to meet the needs of our customers, the retail consumer," said Sher. In doing so, he added, "We'd get plenty of Bonneville (Power Administration) or (Northwest Power Planning) Council-defined conservation along the way."
Developed over the past 18 months in response to BPA's conservation reinvention, the PNGC program places top priority on the customer side of the meter. For example, "If someone wants something that is expensive, we may not recommend it [but] we'll see that they get it," said Sher. That could include, say, custom-built but thermally efficient windows for a home.
"Different consumers have different needs and wants," said Sher. "They're our member-owners; we're here to serve their needs." Retail customers have a "much higher threshold" for conservation cost-effectiveness than utilities, he noted, since retail rates generally are twice as much or more than current wholesale power costs of about 2 cents/kilowatt-hour. Sher also cited the potential for creative alternatives to cash rebates, such as line-extension discounts for a new energy-efficient home or a year's free power for a certain energy-saving appliance.
Another important program feature is inclusiveness. Consumers, utility staff, contractors, manufacturers, Bonneville and PNGC all can play constructive roles, Sher said. BPA, for example, could offer commercial/industrial audits, or provide technology updates. Manufacturers might help sponsor training programs for local HVAC contractors.
John Shearer, whose consulting firm developed the program for PNGC, stresses the importance of engaging local providers of energy services and products. "In a competitive, market-based environment, the only way you can really test an effective program for energy efficiency is if the trade allies are involved in it," he said. Those trade allies mainly want opportunities to sell their products and services, not just wait in line for utility money. In fact, said Shearer, "There's a whole black market going on out there in conservation that [utilities are] not involved in anyhow." Even when BPA conservation budgets were flush, he claimed, they met only a quarter or less of the total regional demand for energy efficiency.
Many consumers, meanwhile, are willing to invest their own money for efficiency and not rely on rebates or low-interest loans, according to Shearer.
"The biggest thing we tried to do [with the program] is put it on a business footing . . . and to understand what was happening in the marketplace," he said, with the idea of accomplishing equal or greater savings and spending less money.
One of the first four participating cooperatives, Coos-Curry, signed up for all subprograms except irrigation, according to consumer services manager George McMullen. "We're going to have a lot more consumer contact with our customers," he said. For example, co-op staffers plan more home visits, using such hands-on techniques as bringing in test equipment to show electric consumption for appliances. Coos-Curry also is looking into low-interest financing of measures that reduce energy demand and/or consumption and are cost-effective to consumers.
"We figure it's a lot more cost-effective [than BPA programs] and that's why we're doing it this way," he said. "We're getting the administrative load out of the dollar."
For more information on the PNGC program, call Sher at (503) 288-1234.--Mark Ohrenschall
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Providing customer-focused energy efficiency services to industrial firms can help electric utilities retain these key (but potentially restless) customers as the competitive era unfolds, according to a November 1995 report by The Results Center. "Industrial Efficiency Programs: Building Strategic Partnerships" explores many of the demand-side management challenges as well as opportunities facing utilities serving industrial customers.
Industrial firms clamoring for low power rates are driving electric industry restructuring, the report notes. They are already the "least captive" of utility customers, with viable options for special contracts, fuel-switching, self-generation and cogeneration. Retaining these large energy users--which consume about a third of the nation's electricity--is critical for many utilities.
Industrial DSM programs, by and large, have neither acquired significant amounts of the potential energy savings nor gained the confidence of manufacturers. "Historically, the industrial sector has been the 'stepchild' of utilities' DSM efforts with most of the limited efforts concentrated on load management rather than on energy efficiency," the report says. In 1993, for example, industrial energy savings accounted for only 17 percent of the national total.
For their part, many industrialists object to the rate impacts, cross-subsidies and competitive disadvantages inherent in traditional DSM. Energy also represents a small cost to many industrials--typically 2 percent of total operating expenses--and often is viewed as relatively insignificant. In fact, according to one observer quoted in the report, energy efficiency generally ranks behind employee safety, compliance with environmental regulations and greater productivity among industrial priorities.
However, the report does cite some low-cost success stories with conventional DSM. Among many others, Bonneville Power Administration, B.C. Hydro and Puget Sound Power and Light have run industrial conservation programs for 2 cents/kilowatt-hour or less.
And for the era of intensifying competition, the IRT report also investigates ways in which DSM can benefit both utilities and industrial customers.
Fundamentally, utilities must shift their focus from resource acquisition to satisfying industrial customer needs. Developing partnerships founded on trust, respect and credibility is critical to this process. B.C. Hydro has done so with its Process Improvements program, which relies on "relationship marketing" with a third-party contractor along with customized incentives. As a result, " . . . the utility is seen as a partner, an 'energy expert' poised to help customers increase their productivity and to ultimately become more competitive."
Other Northwest approaches valued by industrials--according to John Hughes of the national large industrial customer trade group ELCON--include the information services of Portland General Electric's Energy Resource Center, the technology transfer of Washington State Energy Office's MotorMaster program and the customer repayment features of PacifiCorp's Energy FinAnswer program (see Conservation Monitor, January 1995).
The report suggests a number of potential strategies and services for utilities:
The full report is available from IRT for $100. For more information, contact the Colorado-based firm: phone, (970) 927-3155; fax, (970) 927-9428; e-mail, email@example.com.--Mark Ohrenschall
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Energy conservation has contributed to an 11-percent decline since 1982 in average residential electric use per customer in Washington, Oregon and Idaho, according to Energy NewsData's Clearing Up newsletter. Weather-adjusted figures from the U.S. Department of Energy show the average Northwest home used 13,820 kilowatt-hours per year as of late 1995, down from the most recent peak of 15,566 KWh in 1982. Higher electric prices in the early 1980s, the adoption of more energy-efficient building codes in Northwest states, and utility and customer conservation efforts are cited as three primary reasons for the trend toward reduced per-capita residential electric use.
The Oregon Municipal Energy and Conservation Agency not only beat its energy-saving goal, but also its cost-effectiveness target from September 1994 through September 1995.
OMECA's six member utilities acquired 2.6 average megawatts (123 percent of their targeted savings) at an average cost of 1.6 cents/kilowatt-hour (1993 levelized dollars), well below the 2.3 cents/KWh goal. Financed by Bonneville Power Administration, OMECA consists of municipal utilities serving the communities of Ashland, Forest Grove, McMinnville, Milton-Freewater, Monmouth and Springfield. (For more information on OMECA, see Conservation Monitor, January 1995.)
Oregon's Salem/Keizer School District plans to make energy-saving lighting improvements in 36 of its 56 buildings this year, with financial assistance from state government and the local utility. Total annual energy savings are projected at 4.78 million kilowatt-hours (more than .5 average megawatts).
Oregon's second-largest school district in January received a $1.3 million line of credit from the state Department of Energy's Small Scale Energy Loan Program. In addition, Portland General Electric is providing about $462,000 in rebates for the work.
"With the money we save from utility cost reductions, we can repay the credit line and eventually fund future energy savings programs," said Frank Corder, Salem/Keizer's facilities project manager. He expects the lighting improvements to be completed by mid-March.
Portland General Electric's Energy Resource Center officially closed at the end of 1995, but a number of services and resources will still be available in 1996 for PGE customers, trade allies, educators and the general public.
A Technical Support Services team has been formed to provide technical support to customers, design professionals, vendors and trade allies regarding PGE programs, products and services. The ERC library has merged with PGE's corporate library and business information center in downtown Portland and is available, by appointment, to PGE customers and professionals doing business with PGE. Educators and the general public also have access to certain materials.
PGE's Lighting Demonstration Lab in downtown Portland will continue operations in 1996, offering consultations, training, seminars, demonstrations and mock-ups for nominal fees. And the ERC facility in suburban Tualatin is available anytime for PGE-sponsored training and marketing events; other events can be booked weekday nights and weekends.
For more information on these services and resources, contact Roy Josi at (503) 464-7661, phone; (503) 464-7653, fax; or firstname.lastname@example.org, e-mail.
Renewable energy sources and energy-efficiency measures should be the top priorities for federal energy research and development funding, according to a December telephone survey of 1,000 random voters nationwide.
Commissioned by the Sustainable Energy Budget Coalition, the survey showed that 34 percent of respondents believed renewable energy should be the highest funding priority for the U.S. Department of Energy's R and D budget. Energy efficiency was next, with 21 percent support as the top priority. R and D on natural gas, fossil fuels and nuclear power each garnered 9 percent support. In addition, 75 percent of respondents indicated a willingness to pay anywhere from 2 percent to 10 percent more for electricity generated from renewable sources.
Bonneville Power Administration has gone to court to recover some $380,000 it claims Chelan County PUD owes for Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) incentive payments BPA claims it made on the PUD's behalf to manufacturers of energy-efficient manufactured homes sited in Chelan's territory.
The court complaint, filed Feb. 1 in U.S. District Court in Spokane, is the next step in a long-running disagreement between BPA and Chelan PUD that stems from the PUD's December 1993 decision to stop buying firm power from BPA. That decision triggered termination provisions in the PUD's conservation contract with BPA, which specified Chelan would have to repay Bonneville for the remaining value of BPA-funded conservation in the PUD's service area.
Chelan has already paid Bonneville about $458,000 in such termination charges. The PUD believes it doesn't owe BPA anything more, while BPA contends it calculated the termination charge properly and, therefore, Chelan still owes the balance of the charge.
BPA and Chelan have been trying to resolve their disagreement for more than nine months in an attempt to avoid going to court (see Conservation Monitor, June 1995). "We didn't seem to be getting to an amicable agreement, so we decided to initiate a battle of the briefs," said Chelan DSM programs manager Mike Green. Chelan has 60 days to file its response to BPA's complaint--Jude Noland
A Jan. 24 meeting on establishing a commercial energy code in Idaho attracted 29 diverse individuals and resulted in some progress.
The meeting was productive, according to Idaho Department of Water Resources energy conservation bureau chief Ken Baker, who acted as facilitator.
By the end of the three-hour session, the group had found its purpose--to develop a statewide commercial energy code and implementation plan that's appropriate for Idaho; identified its objectives--to inform the 1996 state Legislature of its intent to develop the code and present legislation to the 1997 session; and come up with some criteria for any proposed code--make it simple to understand and apply, as well as cost-effective; include a baseline of energy performance; and make sure it allows for creative design and construction.
The group, whose membership includes representatives of Idaho Power, Intermountain Gas, Northwest Power Planning Council, Oregon Public Utility Commission, IDWR, Idaho Bankers Association, CH2M HILL and Oppenheimer Development Corp., met again Feb. 22; results of that meeting will be posted on IDWR's World Wide Web home page .
This is the last year the Utility Code Group is offering free training for builders, architects, design engineers, building officials and others who need to get up to speed on Washington's non-residential energy code. UCG has published its schedule of winter/spring classes, which are taught by professionals from the building design, construction and enforcement communities and are offered at locations throughout the state. The classes range from a short course on complying with the NREC to a comprehensive review of its components, along with specific training on building, design and installation strategies. UCG also provides exam preparation classes for NREC plans examiner and inspector wannabes. For more information or a brochure describing the winter/spring classes, call the Utility Code Group at (206) 644-4143 or (800) 700-NREC.
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Con.WEB is a World Wide Web publication focusing on energy conservation and renewable energy in the greater Pacific Northwest. Con.WEB is sponsored by Eugene Water & Electric Board, Clark Public Utilities, Seattle City Light, Tacoma City Light, Idaho Power, Montana Power, PacifiCorp, Portland General Electric, Puget Power and the Bonneville Power Administration. OFFICES: Mail--P.O. Box 900928, Seattle, WA 98109-9228. EXPRESS: 117 West Mercer, Seattle, WA 98119. TELEPHONE(206) 285-4848. FAX(206) 281-8035. E-MAILemail@example.com. Con.WEB was created by the Energy NewsData Web team, including: Publisher--Cyrus Noë; Editor--Mark Ohrenschall; Associate Editor--Jude Noland; Contributing Editors--Pamela Russell and Ben Tansey; Editorial Operations and Webmaster--Karen Hatch; General Manager--Brooke Dickinson; Office Manager--Denise Lee; Production Assistant--Michael Katayama; Graphic Design--Katherine Whitehall
Last modified: February 27, 1996
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